Contradictions of clinical immunology: Nonspecific and specific mechanisms in immunogenesis

Zemskov VM*, Pronko KN, Zemskov AM, and Zemskova VA

The interrelations between nonspecific and specific mechanisms for maintaining immune homeostasis, the mechanisms for induction, regulation, and possibilities for targeted immune correction are discussed. Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components. The nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity. An immune system may contain innate and adaptive components. The innate system in mammalians, for example, is composed of primitive bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognize foreign substances and react. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognize self-substances and don't react. The reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire. The nonreaction to self-substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance. These two components of the immune system create a dynamic biological environment where "health" can be seen as a physical state where the self is immunologically spared, and what is foreign is inflammatorily and immunologically eliminated. "Disease" can arise when what is foreign cannot be eliminated or what is self is not spared.