Alive attenuated vaccine development against the African swine fever virus

Roney Leacok*

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute hemorrhagic disease that kills close to 90% of its victims and is brought on by domestic swine and wild boar becoming infected with the ASFV. ASFV has been spreading throughout the world and poses a serious danger to the swine industry’s financial stability. There isn’t a highly effective medication or vaccine for this illness. Pigs may contract attenuated ASFV isolates through chronic infection, but the infection will not be fatal, suggesting that pigs may be able to develop a defence against resistant ASFV. Insights into the biology of ASFV have been provided by studying the essential pillars of immunity development and virus clearing, which keep the host’s normal cell functions and animal life depending on virus-host interactions, in-tact. Regarding the complex interaction between the ASFV protein and host, this review is divided into sections based on broad themes including natural immunity, endoplasmic reticulum stress, cell death, ubiquitination, and autophagy. Insights into the initial virus sensing, clearance, and cell homeostasis can be gained by elucidating the multifunctional role of ASFV proteins in virus-host interactions. This information will also help in the study of viral pathogenesis and the creation of new antiviral therapies. Due to the lack of a vaccine or efficient therapy, African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe hemorrhagic infectious diseases that affect pigs and wild suids. Up to 167 ORFs in the vast dsDNA genome of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) are anticipated to encode proteins. This genome has sparked the interest of scholars all over the world since it was first made available to China in 2018. Here, we examine the latest development in ASFV research. Given the significance of this condition, this review will focus on recent advances in basic virology, with a particular emphasis on epidemiology, virulence, pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis, vaccine development, and treatment. This will aid in our comprehension of virus-host interactions and disease prevention with regard to ASFV.